Curry Leaves

Curry Leaves

The curry tree (Murraya koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), which is native to India and Sri Lanka.

Its leaves are used in many dishes in India, Sri Lanka, and neighboring countries. Often used in curries, the leaves are generally called by the name 'curry leaves', although they are also literally 'sweet neem leaves' in most Indian languages (as opposed to ordinary neem leaves which are very bitter and in the family Meliaceae, not Rutaceae).

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms

(unranked): Eudicots

(unranked): Rosids

Order: Sapindales

Family: Rutaceae

Genus: Murraya

Species: M. koenigii

a) classification-leaves
b) flowers
c) ripe and unripe fruit

It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m (13–20 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 11–21 leaflets, each leaflet 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) broad. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black berries containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible—with a sweet but medicinal flavor—in general, neither the pulp nor seed is used for culinary purposes.

The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König. The genus Murray commemorates Swedish physician and botanist Johan Andreas Murray who died in 1979.

Compounds found in curry tree leaves, stems, bark, and seeds contain cinnamaldehyde, and numerous carbazole alkaloids, including mahanimbine and girinimbine

Curry leaves are natural flavoring agents with a number of important health benefits, which make your food both healthy and tasty along with giving it a pleasant aroma. They contain various antioxidant properties and have the ability to control diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems such as indigestion, excessive acid secretion, peptic ulcers, dysentery, diabetes, and an unhealthy cholesterol balance. They are also believed to have cancer-fighting properties and are known to protect the liver.

Curry leaves have always been sought after for their unique flavor and usefulness in cooking, but there are also a number of health benefits that make them highly appealing. The leaves can be dried or fried, depending on the intended use. The fresh form is also very popular, both for cooking and herbal medicines. In Ayurvedic medicine, curry leaves are believed to have several medicinal properties. They are considered to have anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and hepatoprotective (capability to protect the liver from damage) properties. The roots are used for treating body aches and the bark is used for snake bite relief.

The leaves, with their vast herbal properties, are used in various local cuisines across India and other parts of Asia as flavoring agents. Curry leaves resemble ‘neem’ or Indian lilac and their name in most Indian languages translates to ‘sweet neem’.

Curry Leaves Nutrition Facts

The main nutrients found in curry leaves are carbohydrates, energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, copper, and minerals. It also contains various vitamins like nicotinic acid and vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin E, antioxidants, plant sterols, amino acids, glycosides, and flavonoids. Also, nearly zero fat (0.1 g per 100 g) is found in them.

The other chemical constituents present in curry leaves are carbazole alkaloids. Research studies held by the Department of Home Economics at Kenmei Women’s Junior College in Hyogo, Japan showed that alkaloids found in the leaves possess antioxidant properties. Carbazole alkaloids include mahanimbine, murrayanol, mahanineoenimbine, O-methylmurrayamine A, O-methylmahanine, isomahanine, bismahanine and bispyrayafoline. Further studies conducted at the Department of Horticulture at Michigan State University suggested that these chemicals have insecticidal and antimicrobial properties as well, specifically mosquitocidal properties.

Health Benefits of Curry Leaves

Most people think that curry leaves just add flavor to the food and they throw the leaves away while eating their soup or curry. However, they are far more important than many people realize, and they offer a number of health benefits without any side effects.

Cure Diarrhea

Research conducted by Ashish Pagariya and Maithili, V. concluded that the carbazole alkaloids present in curry leaves have anti-diarrheal properties. Experiments on lab rats showed that carbazole extracts from curry leaves had significantly controlled castor oil-induced diarrhea. A bunch of curry leaves can be ground up and the paste can be eaten or the juice of the leaves can be consumed.

Gastrointestinal Protection

Use of curry leaves is recommended as a cure for gastrointestinal issues in Ayurveda. One important use is due to the fact that they are considered to possess mild laxative properties. You can make juice out of a bunch of curry leaves and add lime juice, and consume the mixture to cure indigestion. A paste made from the leaves can also be added to buttermilk and taken every morning on an empty stomach to serve the same function.

Antioxidant Properties

Research studies conducted by Mylarappa B. Ningappa et al. at Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Molecular Parasitology and Protein Engineering Laboratory in Bengaluru, India have indicated that curry leaves are a good source of antioxidants. The presence of various vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C and vitamin E help in reducing oxidative stress and free radical scavenging activity. They are also available in dried powder form.

Anti-diabetic Properties

Perhaps one of the biggest health benefits of curry leaves is its use in diabetes control. Research conducted by the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Madras, Chennai showed that the anti-hyperglycemic properties of the leaves were beneficial in controlling blood glucose level in diabetic rats.

Fight Cancer

The chemical constituents found in curry leaves such as phenols are helpful in fighting cancers such as leukemia, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancers. Research on these leaves at the Department of Medical Chemistry at the Mejio University, Japan showed evidence of cancer-fighting properties in the carbazole alkaloids extracts from curry leaves.

Lower Cholesterol Levels

Curry leaves are also known to reduce LDL or bad cholesterol levels. Studies conducted at the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Kerala, India have shown that they have the potential to reduce LDL cholesterol levels.

Hair Care

Curry leaves are believed to help in strengthening hair roots. Dry curry leaf powder mixed with oil can be applied to your hair. The paste from curry leaves can also be applied in cases of gray hair. Doing these on a regular basis can improve hair growth as well.

Good for Eyesight

Curry leaves contain high amounts of vitamin A and therefore is good for eyesight. Vitamin A contains carotenoids which protect the cornea, the eye surface. Deficiency of vitamin A may cause night blindness, cloud formations in front of the eye and even loss of vision in some cases.

Radioprotective and Chemo-protective

Studies on the extracts of curry leaves have shown positive results in reducing the effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They also offer protection against chromosomal damage, protection of bone marrow, and prevention of free radicals becoming active in the body.

Protect Against Pathogen Attack

Research on curry leaves has revealed that they are also effective in fighting bacterial and fungal infections. The leaf extracts from the plant have been comparable to popular mainstream antibiotic drugs.

Protect the Liver

Your liver plays a major role in the digestive process and it needs to be protected from any attack by free radicals, as well as from viral and bacterial attacks that can result in infection. Research on curry leaves has indicated that the tannins and carbazole alkaloids present in the leaves exhibited good hepato-protective properties. They are also helpful in protecting the liver from various diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Skin Care

Curry leaves are also helpful in skin care. The juice or paste of the leaves can be applied to burns, cuts, bruises, skin irritations, and insect bites for a quick recovery and clean healing.

Where to buy curry leaves?

Major chains like Walmart and Target have curry leaves in various forms, meaning that you can even grow your own at home! Smaller natural medicine and Ayurveda-oriented stores will also have these leaves for sale. Again, they have a wide variety of uses, so there are plenty of places to find them.

How to store curry leaves?

You should remove the curry leaves from the stems, wash them, and pat them dry. Place them on a large plate with a sieve or mesh cover and set the leaves out in the sun for 2-3 days. Store the dry leaves in a plastic container; you can even keep them in the fridge and simply get one whenever you need!

References

  • http://www.indianspices.com/spice-catalog/curry-leaf
  • http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf034700%2B
  • http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf9805808
  • https://www.cabdirect.org/?target=%2fcabdirect%2fabstract%2f20093079957
  • https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.057


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