Open Source Technology

Open Source Technology


Open source technology is a growing trend in GIS, but what is it? Open source software is software in which the source code used to create the program is freely available for the public to view, edit, and redistribute. The term "open source" refers to something people can modify and share because its design is publicly accessible.

The term originated in the context of software development to designate a specific approach to creating computer programs. Today, however, "open source" designates a broader set of values—what we call "the open source way." Open source projects, products, or initiatives embrace and celebrate principles of open exchange, collaborative participation, rapid prototyping, transparency, meritocracy, and community-oriented development.

Open Source

What is open source software?

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

"Source code" is the part of software that most computer users don't ever see; it's the code computer programmers can manipulate to change how a piece of software—a "program" or "application"—works. Programmers who have access to a computer program's source code can improve that program by adding features to it or fixing parts that don't always work correctly.

What's the difference between open source software and other types of software?

Some software has source code that only the person, team, or organization who created it—and maintains exclusive control over it—can modify. People call this kind of software "proprietary" or "closed source" software.

Only the original authors of proprietary software can legally copy, inspect, and alter that software. And in order to use proprietary software, computer users must agree (usually by signing a license displayed the first time they run this software) that they will not do anything with the software that the software's authors have not expressly permitted. Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary software.

Open source software is different. Its authors make its source code available to others who would like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, alter it, or share it. LibreOffice and the GNU Image Manipulation Program are examples of open source software.

As they do with proprietary software, users must accept the terms of a license when they use open source software—but the legal terms of open source licenses differ dramatically from those of proprietary licenses.

Open source licenses affect the way people can use, study, modify, and distribute software. In general, open source licenses grant computer users permission to use open source software for any purpose they wish. Some open source licenses—what some people call "copyleft" licenses—stipulate that anyone who releases a modified open source program must also release the source code for that program alongside it. Moreover, some open source licenses stipulate that anyone who alters and shares a program with others must also share that program's source code without charging a licensing fee for it.

By design, open source software licenses promote collaboration and sharing because they permit other people to make modifications to source code and incorporate those changes into their own projects. They encourage computer programmers to access, view, and modify open source software whenever they like, as long as they let others do the same when they share their work.

Is open source software only important to computer programmers?

No. Open source technology and open source thinking both benefit programmers and non-programmers.

Because early inventors built much of the Internet itself on open source technologies—like the Linux operating system and the Apache Web server application—anyone using the Internet today benefits from open source software.

Every time computer users view web pages, check email, chat with friends, stream music online, or play multiplayer video games, their computers, mobile phones, or gaming consoles connect to a global network of computers using open source software to route and transmit their data to the "local" devices they have in front of them. The computers that do all this important work are typically located in faraway places that users don't actually see or can't physically access—which is why some people call these computers "remote computers."

More and more, people rely on remote computers when performing tasks they might otherwise perform on their local devices. For example, they may use online word processing, email management, and image editing software that they don't install and run on their personal computers. Instead, they simply access these programs on remote computers by using a Web browser or mobile phone application. When they do this, they're engaged in "remote computing."

Some people call remote computing "cloud computing," because it involves activities (like storing files, sharing photos, or watching videos) that incorporate not only local devices but also a global network of remote computers that form an "atmosphere" around them.

Cloud computing is an increasingly important aspect of everyday life with Internet-connected devices. Some cloud computing applications, like Google Apps, are proprietary. Others, like own Cloud and Next cloud, are open source.

Cloud computing applications run "on top" of additional software that helps them operate smoothly and efficiently, so people will often say that software running "underneath" cloud computing applications acts as a "platform" for those applications. Cloud computing platforms can be open source or closed source. OpenStack is an example of an open source cloud computing platform.

Why do people prefer using open source software?

People prefer open source software to proprietary software for a number of reasons, including:

Control. Many people prefer open source software because they have more control over that kind of software. They can examine the code to make sure it's not doing anything they don't want it to do, and they can change parts of it they don't like. Users who aren't programmers also benefit from open source software, because they can use this software for any purpose they wish—not merely the way someone else thinks they should.

Training. Other people like open source software because it helps them become better programmers. Because open source code is publicly accessible, students can easily study it as they learn to make better software. Students can also share their work with others, inviting comment and critique, as they develop their skills. When people discover mistakes in programs' source code, they can share those mistakes with others to help them avoid making those same mistakes themselves.

Security. Some people prefer open source software because they consider it more secure and stable than proprietary software. Because anyone can view and modify open source software, someone might spot and correct errors or omissions that a program's original authors might have missed. And because so many programmers can work on a piece of open source software without asking for permission from original authors, they can fix, update, and upgrade open source software more quickly than they can proprietary software.

Stability. Many users prefer open source software to proprietary software for important, long-term projects. Because programmers publicly distribute the source code for open source software, users relying on that software for critical tasks can be sure their tools won't disappear or fall into disrepair if their original creators stop working on them. Additionally, open source software tends to both incorporate and operate according to open standards.

Doesn't "open source" just mean something is free of charge?

No. This is a common misconception about what "open source" implies, and the concept's implications are not only economic.

Open source software programmers can charge money for the open source software they create or to which they contribute. But in some cases, because an open source license might require them to release their source code when they sell software to others, some programmers find that charging users money for software services and support (rather than for the software itself) is more lucrative. This way, their software remains free of charge, and they make money helping others install, use, and troubleshoot it.

While some open source software may be free of charge, skill in programming and troubleshooting open source software can be quite valuable. Many employers specifically seek to hire programmers with experience working on open source software.

5 Reasons to Use Open Source Software for Your Business

1. Its Cost Efficient

Between the cost of the software, licensing, virus protections and ongoing upgrade expenses, the cost of proprietary systems add up quick. Additionally, the software still contains flaws and limits your abilities. With an open source system, you can sideline these costs, all while getting a customized product that will ensure growth and productivity.

2. It Allows Flexibility

After you make the investment in the proprietary software that you feel best suits your business, you’re then locked into a system that is concrete, rigid, constantly needs upgrades and may contain unspecified bugs. Open source programs keep an open code so you can constantly go in, rewrite the code so as your business changes and adapts, so will your software system.

3. It’s More Secure

With proprietary software no one outside of the company knows how many bugs the program contains. Bugs in open source software tend to get fixed immediately. Versus a program like Microsoft, which typically takes weeks if not months to patch vulnerabilities?

4. Problems? No Problem.

With the popularity of open source software, there is plenty of support through forums, and live support chats. For businesses that want extra assurance, there are now paid support options on most open source packages at prices that still fall far below what most proprietary vendors will charge. Providers of commercial support for open source software tend to me more responsive since support is where their revenue is focused.

5. A Product You’re Proud Of

Open source allows you to tweak the software to suit your needs. With its open code, it’s simply a matter of modifying it to add the functionality you want. It puts you in a unique position. This customization allows you to develop the applications quickly, reliably and economically to grow with the expansion of your business.

Open source technology trends for 2018

Open source drives innovation

Digital disruption is the norm in today's tech-centric era. Within the technology space, open source is now pervasive, and in 2018, it will be the driving force behind most of the technology innovations.

Open Source
1. OpenStack gains increasing acceptance

OpenStack is essentially a cloud operating system that offers admins the ability to provision and control huge compute, storage, and networking resources through an intuitive and user-friendly dashboard.

2. Progressive Web Apps become popular

Progressive Web Apps (PWA), an aggregation of technologies, design concepts, and web APIs, offer an app-like experience in the mobile browser.

3. Rust to rule the roost

Most programming languages come with safety vs. control tradeoffs. Rust is an exception. The language co-opts extensive compile-time checking to offer 100% control without compromising safety. The last Pwn2Own competition threw up much serious vulnerability in Firefox on account of its underlying C++ language. If Firefox had been written in Rust, many of those errors would have manifested as compile-time bugs and resolved before the product rollout stage.
Rust's unique approach of built-in unit testing has led developers to consider it a viable first-choice open source language. It offers an effective alternative to languages such as C and Python to write secure code without sacrificing expressiveness. Rust has bright days ahead in 2018.

4. R user community grows

The R programming language, a GNU project, is associated with statistical computing and graphics. It offers a wide array of statistical and graphical techniques and is extensible to boot. It starts where S ends. With the S language already the vehicle of choice for research in statistical methodology, R offers a viable open source route for data manipulation, calculation, and graphical display. An added benefit is R's attention to detail and care for the finer nuances.

5. The Internet of Things connects more things

At its core, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the interconnection of devices through embedded sensors or other computing devices that enable the devices (the "things") to send and receive data. IoT is already predicted to be the next big major disruptor of the tech space, but IoT itself is in a continuous state of flux.
One innovation likely to gain widespread acceptance within the IoT space is Autonomous Decentralized Peer-to-Peer Telemetry (ADEPT), which is propelled by IBM and Samsung. It uses a block chain-type technology to deliver a decentralized network of IoT devices. Freedom from a central control system facilitates autonomous communications between "things" in order to manage software updates, resolve bugs, manage energy, and more.

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Jitendra Kumar Purohit
Madhav University